Friday, December 5, 2014

THE GOVERNMENT IS SNOOPING IN YOUR COMPUTER .. EVEN WITH ALL YOUR FIREWALLS!!

Your USB cable, the spy: Inside the NSA’s catalog of surveillance magic

Latest batch of documents leaked shows NSA's power to pwn.

 The National Security Agency’s sophisticated hacking operations go way beyond using software vulnerabilities to gain access to targeted systems. The agency has a catalog of tools available that would make James Bond’s Q jealous, providing NSA analysts access to just about every potential source of data about a target.

In some cases, the NSA has modified the firmware of computers and network hardware—including systems shipped by Cisco, Dell, Hewlett-Packard, Huawei, and Juniper Networks—to give its operators both eyes and ears inside the offices the agency has targeted. In others, the NSA has crafted custom BIOS exploits that can survive even the reinstallation of operating systems. And in still others, the NSA has built and deployed its own USB cables at target locations—complete with spy hardware and radio transceiver packed inside.
Documents obtained by Der Spiegel reveal a fantastical collection of surveillance tools dating back to 2007 and 2008 that gave the NSA the power to collect all sorts of data over long periods of time without detection. The tools, ranging from back doors installed in computer network firmware and software to passively powered bugs installed within equipment, give the NSA a persistent ability to monitor some targets with little risk of detection. While the systems targeted by some of the “products” listed in the documents are over five years old and are likely to have been replaced in some cases, the methods and technologies used by all the exploit products could easily still be in use in some form in ongoing NSA surveillance operations.

Special delivery

There’s no indication from the documents that the manufacturers played any role in the development or delivery of the backdoors (something that manufacturers are now loudly telling their customers, too). The documents, which appear to be pages from a catalog of capabilities provided by the NSA's ANT division for the NSA’s Tailored Access Operations (TAO) division, show that many of the tools on offer are ordinary Windows exploits designed to use parts of the operating system to “phone home” to the NSA with data; like most malware, these packages can be dropped in place remotely and are probably the least interesting of the new revelations.
Hardware- and firmware-based backdoors, by contrast, require laying hands on the actual target systems. In some cases, the NSA’s operators install backdoor hardware and firmware directly onto the systems by “interdiction”—the systems are diverted during shipping to “load stations” where the surveillance components are installed. (This interception may have been accomplished with the cooperation of shipping companies or other government agencies; details of the process remain murky.) In other cases, the NSA uses an insider with a USB device or remote access tools deployed by other means to gain access to computer systems, allowing the NSA to “reflash” their low-level BIOS firmware.
Either way, the altering of systems’ firmware or hardware gives the NSA the ability to install backdoors that can survive a total operating system wipe and re-installation. One BIOS attack, called SWAP, was developed by the NSA to attack a number of types of computers and operating systems by loading surveillance and control software at boot-up. SWAP uses the Host Protected Area on a computer’s hard drive to store the payload and installs it before the operating system boots.
More specialized BIOS attacks were developed to take advantage of motherboard-based System Management Mode (SMM) capabilities on Dell and Hewlett-Packard servers. Dell PowerEdge servers were targeted with an implant called DEITYBOUNCE, while HP Proliant 360DL G5 servers were targeted with one called IRONCHEF. Both allowed NSA operators to gain remote control of systems in SMM mode—giving the agency firmware-level control over infected servers and the ability to do things like run “rootkits” on the server operating system.
The ANT "product" listing for IRONCHEF, the BIOS attack on HP servers, showing an example attack scenario where remote operators use a covert wireless network to take control of servers.
Network hardware is also a target for the NSA’s BIOS attacks. For example, one collection of BIOS hacks called the “MONTANA” family  (SCHOOLMONTANA, SIERRAMONTANA, and STUCCOMONTANA), was designed to target Juniper Networks routers using the JUNOS operating system—a FreeBSD derivative. Once installed, the hacked BIOS actually modifies the operating system kernel in memory when the router is booted, giving an NSA remote operations center full command and control over the router and allowing for selected network traffic to be sent back to the operations center over an external network connection. Even physically replacing the CompactFlash memory card the router boots from wouldn't get rid of this back door.
Juniper routers weren’t the only targets of these sorts of BIOS “implants,” either—firewalls and routers from Cisco and Huawei were also on the 2007 menu for firmware and software exploits. Such router exploits didn’t even require interception of the hardware but could in many cases be remotely installed by way of another hack.
For systems where a BIOS hack is impractical, the NSA has other tools to install a persistent backdoor. One, called GINSU, uses a PCI bus device installed on the computer. An implant called BULLDOZER creates a stealth wireless bridge, providing radio-based remote control of the backdoor to TAO operators. If the rootkit on the system (called KONGUR) is removed by a system re-installation, the GINSU backdoor can re-install the software on the next boot-up.
Enlarge / GINSU allows the NSA to slice and dice computers' hard drives and control them remotely over a covert radio connection.

Reach out and touch someone

An implanted wireless device is the NSA’s go-to approach for dealing with “air-gapped” networks—networks that don’t have an Internet connection for security reasons. There are a number of other implanted devices that the NSA has in its TAO arsenal, including USB and Ethernet implants that can transmit short-range radio signals and more robust implanted hardware for longer-range transmissions. These radio links create a shadow Internet that allows the NSA to move data out of an adversary’s network and into its TURMOIL and X-KEYSCORE collection system.
The COTTONMOUTH series of implants are USB devices that provide a covert wireless bridge into a target network. They can be integrated into any USB plug, so check your mouse.
For networks that the NSA can't get to physically, there's NIGHTSTAND, a self-contained Wi-Fi hacking system that can break into networks up to eight miles away, in optimum conditions. NIGHTSTAND hijacks the target network and uses packet injection attacks to install exploits on the target network's computers. Combined with a Windows exploit called SOMBERKNAVE, which uses a computer's Wi-Fi adapter to "phone home" with data, it could be used to collect data from target computers even when they're not intentionally connected to a network.
Enlarge / According to the ANT catalog, the NIGHTSTAND Wi-FI exploit system's attack is "undetectable by the user."
But why stop at network data? The NSA also uses some fairly exotic tools to grab computer video, keyboard strokes, and even audio from inside more difficult-to-reach places by using passive electronic devices that are actually powered by radar. These devices, charged by a specially tuned continuous wave radio signal sent from a portable radar unit (operating at as little as 2W up to as much as 1kW of power in the 1-2GHz range), send back a data stream as a reflected signal, allowing the NSA’s operators to tune in and view what’s happening on a computer screen or even listen to what’s being said in the room as they paint the target with radio frequency energy—as well as giving a relative rough location of devices within a building for the purposes of tracking or targeting.

Hacking smartphones

The 2007 NSA wish book for analysts also includes a number of software tools that allow data to be stolen from a variety of smartphones and dumb cell phones. One software hack, called DROPOUTJEEP, is a software implant for Apple iOS devices that allows the NSA to remotely control and monitor nearly all the features of an iPhone, including geolocation, text messages, and the microphone and camera. (Researcher and developer Jake Appelbaum, who helped write the Spiegel article revealing the documents, said separately this week that the NSA claims DROPOUTJEEP installations are always successful.) Another package, called TOTEGHOSTLY, does the same for phones based on the Windows Mobile embedded operating system.
Both the DROPOUTJEEP and TOTEGHOSTLY releases mentioned in the 2007 product listing required “close access methods” for installation—in other words, a human being getting up close and personal with the phone to install it. “A remote installation capacity will be pursued for a future release,” the document states. But another tool, called MONKEYCALENDAR, allowed the NSA to remotely install location-tracking software onto any GSM phone by way of a software implant for SIM cards.
But these aren't the only way the NSA can get to cell phone data. Also in the bag of tricks are a number of wireless monitoring devices, as well as “networks in a box” and other gear that can pose as cell towers and networks—intercepting devices as they enter an area and grabbing up their voice, data, and SMS traffic. A "tripwire" program called CANDYGRAM can send out alerts whenever a cell phone hits a specified cell tower.

Old tricks, new tricks

It’s important to note that the exploits in the documents are largely over five years old, so they don’t necessarily give a complete picture of what the NSA is capable of today. That doesn’t mean that these techniques are no longer in circulation—given the stubbornness of Windows XP, many of the exploits developed for older Windows platforms may have years left in them, and some of the adversaries the NSA is trying to monitor don’t have Fortune 500 hardware refresh rates.
A frequent defense of what the NSA does with its bag of tricks is that in many ways it is no different from what other countries (including China, Russia, and France) try to do to the United States and other countries via their intelligence organizations. These documents show the key way the NSA is different—its vast technical resources and ability to essentially put itself into the supply chain for technology flowing to the rest of the world. US officials have long suspected China of doing the same thing with hardware from companies such as Huawei and ZTE, but these documents essentially spell out that "interdiction" is part of the US intelligence strategy, too.
The exposure of the techniques and capabilities of the NSA creates another problem for the agency, in that it provides those hard-to-get-at organizations the TAO was created to go after with an idea of how the NSA has targeted and will target them. It also creates a problem for companies like Cisco and Juniper, who now face the same sort of scrutiny the US and others put Huawei under for its connections to the Chinese military. Even if Dell, HP, Cisco, and Juniper had no hand in creating the backdoors for their products, the documents will undoubtedly be used against them the next time they try to sell hardware to a foreign government.

How Obama and Facebook and Other Media will Manipulate the masses soon. ( please read and Share for your own good)

THE BIG PLAN FOR THE FEDERAL OLIGARCHS WITH OBAMA AS THEIR FRONT MAN

... AND THEIR PUPPETS LIKE FACEBOOK:

 

 

 

 

(Obama and Zuckerberg and other are tools to Fundamentally Transform America into a Socialist Oligarchy!)

Facebook among other media are evolving into the multi pronged multitool  for the modern Socialist totalitarianism.

I will discuss the EPA, THE IRS, THE HHS, THE SSA AND OTHER TOOLS IN OTHER BLOGS!!

This is about how Facebook is used as a Tool.

Tool No. 1: Surveillance at Scale

Just a few decades ago...in East Germany under communism, the secret police (the Stasi) gathered data by hand, relying on stakeouts and a massive network of civilian informants to build detailed files on its targets, whose ranks included pretty much everyone.

Under the watchful eyes of the Stasi, whose file cabinets stretched for miles, case agents were responsible for keeping tabs on individuals and groups. Though these agents had large and ever-growing dossiers at their disposal, they were essentially confined to what they could capture on paper and keep in their minds.

The 21st century totalitarian has no patience for this antiquated approach. And nor should he: compared to Internet-scale data collection, the Stasi’s methods are slow, inefficient, and prone to lapses in human judgment.

No, the 21st century totalitarian needs a modern way to capture and catalog the activities, psychologies, and political sentiments of the population in real time. Ideally, this would be a place online where people share freely and regularly about themselves pretending or ignorantly assuming that all their information is private!!

Tool No. 2: Data Mining

Of course, collecting massive amounts of data is the (relatively) easy part. Once you have access to a large, rich and ever-growing online identity database, you need algorithms that can mine its activities and uncover threats to the status quo.

Along with potential terrorists, these threats include:
  • subversives
  • whistleblowers
  • radicals
  •  Patriots looking to Restore America
Wouldn’t it be nice if you, the 21st century totalitarian, could build a detailed psychological profile of these types and use your massive identity database and a bit of sophisticated machine learning to find others? Sure, you’d surface a substantial number of false positives, but it’s nothing some light investigation and/or interrogation couldn’t suss out.

With such a tool at your disposal, it’d be like having the pre-cogs from Minority Report, but instead of weirdly-psychic humans drugged up and living in a bath, you’d have an All-Seeing Machine and all tied to the NSA and the IRS and the DHS and other key Control cogs.

Tool No. 3: Mass Manipulation

The 20th century totalitarian relied on absolute control of the flow of information. Writing official textbooks, burning subversive materials, censoring the media, and publishing a non-stop flow of propaganda was simply the way of things. But for the 21st century totalitarian, the fragmentation of TV and the free-form frontiers of the Internet complicates this strategy. They still continue to subvert the schools and colleges by planting their indoctrinated tools who teach the next generation of Americans to accept the inevitable of all things Socialist and "Utopian"

Sure, you could just co-opt cable news, but there are so many channels! Radio? That’s so 1933.
No, while these blunt forms of manipulation work through MSNBC and the alphabet Media of ABC, CBS, CNN, NBC they are too obvious to work on everyone else.

Today’s totalitarian demands a more subtle way to influence cultural and political sentiment. But if you got your hands on an algorithmically filtered newsfeed? One that could be controlled by the leftist Obama media can repeated over and over again,   stories people see every day and influence their emotions across geographic, political and economic lines? You’d be on your way to have total monolithic absolute control. Then they could weed out the dissenters, the Constitutional Republic endorsers.

Where Does That Leave Us?


Facebook has been infiltrated by the leftist Islamo Nazi types who percolate upwards intheir organization  but early on we trusted that Zuckerberg and his senior staff have benevolent intentions for the power they are amassing.

But then there was the mood-influence study that was shocking for its evil intent.

Facebook changed the tone of content showing up in people’s feeds to test the impact it could have on their moods. The results, not too surprisingly, suggested that Facebook has the power to manipulate sentiment at scale.

Facebook then began to purge dissenting points of view with large audiences. They lefts the top of teh Rightwing food chain alone because removing them make the plan too obvious!

But make no mistake about it.,..Facebook, despite the facade of openness and freedom of Choice and pretending to adhere to the Tenets of the First Amendment.. will because they are tools of the Socialist oligarchy, WILL eventually evolve into the Totalitarian Multitool. The disclosure of this study brought the whole thing home. They can only survive in the coming American Order IF.. they comply.

Remember those who comply meekly will survive and are rewarded. Those that don't..are destroyed

Remember:
Goldman Sachs... Survived and Rewarded
Lehman Brothers.. Destroyed

General Motors.. Survived and Rewarded
Chrysler.... Destroyed

The List goes on and on!!  Comply or be Destroyed

At this point I call for REVOLUTION.. because I am NOT hopeful that the ideals of democracy and human freedom will persevere against the Socialist paranoia of the coming Fundamental Changes promised by Obama.

The America  ideals face a risk of death in the not-too-distant future.

Given how easy it is to scare people about the scary-seeming-but-actually-low-risk Ebola, and how dumb we all get when we are afraid, it is not crazy to think that under the wrong circumstances — like one or two more mass-scale terrorist attacks on major cities — modern democracy gives way to something akin to 1984.

When the Socialist Oligarchs seize the reins of power, they will use the cable news the ways Joseph Goebels did with Der Spiegel in the 1930's.

Top Down Bottom up...and inside out...

Its been done before...


CLICK HERE TO SEE WHAT I MEAN

http://youtu.be/b5-kDx6gOZY

The Interent will be selectively switched off.. and Compliant Tools like  Facebook with its  data maw, targeting power and sentiment-manipulation capabilities will be used to manipulate the masses and that Patriots  would be far more insidious.

WHAT ARE OUR CHOICES ??

REVOLT AND REMOVE THIS OLIGARCHY AND RESTORE THE CONSTITUTIONAL REPUBLIC...

If Not 

The Egyption Pharaohs were not all BLACK!! ( The myth exposed! ) There were mixed with very little Negro!

FACTS THAT AL SHARPTON AND FARAKHAN AND OBAMA WILL NOT KNOW OR TELL YOU!!

FACTS THAT THE PROGRESSIVES DO NOT WANT YOU TO KNOW!!

Some of King Tut’s DNA is Western European
Posted by EU Times on Jun 7th, 2010
http://www.eutimes.net/2010/06/king-tuts-dna-is-western-europ...

Despite the refusal of the Secretary General of the Egyptian Supreme Council of Antiquities, Zahi Hawass, to release any DNA results which might indicate the racial ancestry of Pharaoh Tutankhamen, the leaked results reveal that King Tut’s DNA is a 99.6 percent match with Western European Y chromosomes.

The DNA test results were inadvertently revealed on a Discovery Channel TV documentary filmed with Hawass’s permission — but it seems as if the Egyptian failed to spot the giveaway part of the documentary which revealed the test results.

Hawass previously announced that he would not release the racial DNA results of Egyptian mummies — obviously because he feared the consequences of such a revelation.
"The population of North Africa in ancient times consisted predominantly of Berbers in the West and Egyptians in the East.

The Semitic Phoenicians and Jews, the Iranian Alans, and the European Greeks, Romans and Vandals settled in North Africa as well.

Berber speaking populations constitute significant communities within Morocco and Algeria and are also still present in smaller numbers in Tunisia and Libya.

The Tuareg and other often-nomadic peoples are the principal inhabitants of the Saharan interior of North Africa.

The Nubians, who developed an ancient civilization in Northeast Africa (Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia), are among the predominately Nilo-Saharan-speaking groups found in Sudan, in addition to the Fur, Zaghawa and Nuba, among others."


Actually, 60,000 years ago all humans had dark skin. And 20,000 years from now, everyone will be light skinned muslims, as we hide from the sun more and more!

The ancient Egyptian's absorption of Negro blood is so remote in its beginning that some historians, mistaking later mixture for the original stock, held the Egyptians to have been Negroid in origin. More recent investigations have brought much light upon the physical type of the earliest inhabitants of the Nile Valley, and Egyptologists are now agreed that the early type was Caucasic and the Negroid admixture is subsequent to the period of Egypt's greatness.
The best known authority upon Negro history (Sir Harry Johnston) tells us that the Egyptians were a Caucasian people and that their early contact with the Negro imparted to that race all the arts of civilization they possessed up to the coming of the Persians, Greeks, Romans, Arabs, and modern Europeans to the continent of Africa. Breasted, who is second to no other authority in matters pertaining to early Egypt, recognizes the early date of the beginnings of this admixture with the Negro peoples to the south of Egypt, but dismisses the assumption that the Egyptians were themselves a Negroid people with "The conclusion once maintained by some historians, that the Egyptians were of African Negro origin, is now refuted." (James Henry Breasted, History of Egypt, p. 28)
After following the history of Egypt during the period of greatness and through the decay to the time mulattoes were sitting upon the throne of the once illustrious Pharaohs, Breasted recognizes that Negro blood had reached the aristocracy, and concludes that it was this blood which rendered the Negroid dynasty unfit for progress. "It was indeed now patent that the Ethiopians were unfitted for the imperial task now before them. The southern strain with which their blood was tinctured began to appear as the reign of Shabatka drew to a close, about 688 B.C." (Ibid., p. 554)
The consolidation of the kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt by Menes, the first Pharaoh, occurred 3400 years B.C. The accession of Teharka, a mulatto, to the throne occurred about 688 B.C. "It was at this juncture that we can trace the rising fortunes of Prince Teharka...he was the son of a Nubian woman, and his features, as preserved in contemporary sculpture, show unmistakably Negroid characteristics." (Ibid., p.544) There is, then, an interval of some twenty-seven centuries between the first Pharaoh and the date when a mulatto inherits the throne. It was of this period, when Negroids were upon the throne, that Isaiah foresaw the downfall of Egypt, "At the same time spake the Lord by Isaiah, the son of Amos, saying, Go and loose the sackcloth from off they loins, and put off thy shoe from they foot. And he did so, walking naked and barefoot. And the Lord said, Like as my servant Isaiah hath walked naked and barefoot three years for a sign and wonder upon Egypt and upon Ethiopia; so shall the king of Assyria lead away the Egyptians prisoners and the Ethiopians captives, young and old, naked and barefoot." (Isaiah 20)
It was also of the Ethiopian supremacy that the officer of Sennacherib spoke to the ambassadors of Jerusalem, "Now, behold, thou trustest upon the staff of this bruised red, even upon Egypt; on which if a man lean, it will go into his hand and pierce it: so is Pharaoh king of Egypt unto all that trust on him." (II Kings 18:21)
In seeking an ally against the Assyrians, the Israelites were drawn to depend upon Egypt. In earlier times the fame of Egypt, its highly developed civilization, had cast a spell upon the ancient world. Remembering its might and glory, and unaware of its present impotence, the Israelites sought the aid of Egypt in their contest with the Assyrians.
A survey of this ancient civilization will show that its great achievements were in the earlier centuries. There was a prolonged period of decline. The inhabitants lost initiative and ingenuity, and at the coming of the Assyrians they could offer but feeble resistance. We will understand the situation if we grasp the fact that Egyptian civilization was not overthrown; it decayed. The trouble was internal.
Material of the greatest importance, which determines conclusively the race type of the earliest Egyptians known to history, is so recent in its discovery that few of the standard authors on Egyptian history have been able to profit by it. Explorations and excavations by Americans operating in Egypt have contributed much to this field of knowledge. Working mainly upon the results of the Hearst Expedition of the University of California, under the direction of Dr. Reisner of Harvard, professor G. Elliott Smith or England has published a small but valuable volume dealing with the physical type of the Egyptian people from the earliest times to the builders of the pyramids. With this, and kindred information, we know the race lineage of the Egyptians as well as if these ancient people were in our presence.
"The hot, dry sands of Egypt have preserved through a span of more than sixty centuries the remains of countless multitudes of the earliest peoples known to have dwelt in the Nile Valley; and not the mere bones only, but also their skin, and hair, the muscles and organs of the body; and even such delicate tissues as the nerves and the brain, and, most marvelous of all, the lens of the eye, are available for examination today. We are able to form a very precise idea of the structure of the body of the Proto-Egyptian (First Egyptians)...it presented no resemblance whatever to the so-called woolly' appearance and peppercorn-like arrangement of the Negro's hair." (The Ancience Egyptians and Their Influence Upon European Civilization, 1911, by G. Eliott Smith, Professor of Anatomy in the University of Manchester, England.)
Of the remains exhumed, not more than two per cent showed definitely a Negro admixture, and possibly an additional two percent showed a suspicion of Negro blood. That this percentage, small as it is, is found in the prehistoric burial grounds is ample evidence of the remoteness of Egyptian contact with the Negro. We see how unfounded is the assumption that the early Egyptians were of African Negro extraction. Yet the remoteness of the first interbreeding with the Negro is well calculated to have led some authorities astray. It is as if some future archaeologist should explore the ruins of present day Washington, find that one-fourth of its inhabitants were Negroes, and conclude that the Americans of the great civilization were of Negro extraction. The proportion of the Negro here would be twelve times as great as in Ancient Egypt. Should he attribute the civilization of America to the Negro because of these remains? Would not the archaeologist be in keeping with American history if he stated that the Negro resided in America, enjoyed the emoluments of its civilization, but did not contribute an impulse to its progress?
The Egyptians were of the brunette race we now call "Mediterranean." They were not Negroes, nor were they Nordics, though individuals of both of these races were present. By reason of the fact that it is not to environment, but to race, that we must look for the major factor in the rise of great cultures, there has been a willingness on the part of some authorities to stress the Nordic influence in the higher Egyptian culture. Apart from the engineering skill shown in the building of the temples and pyramids the culture of the early centuries does not imply the influence of a race other than the Mediterranean. Pure Mediterraneans at the present time manifest cultural activities analogous to those of the ancient Egyptians. It is not sufficient to say that the present inhabitants do not contribute to cultural advancement, whereas the ancient Egyptians were leaders in civilization; for the present inhabitants of Egypt are not the pure descendants of the ancient Egyptians. The most highly constituted race, the most developed physically and intellectually, may, within a few generations, breed backward in the scale of evolution by absorbing the blood of an inferior race. Breeding backward! This is the nemesis of great cultures. Let us bear in mind that there is no natural law affecting mankind which necessitates retrogression in mind or body.
While the blood of the early Egyptian, is well diffused throughout Egypt, it is significant that the Copts, who are the purest representatives of the pre-Moslem Egyptian, are distinctly Negroid, more so than a large proportion of the Semitic newcomers.
As we know that the great mass of the people were of the Mediterranean race, the most that can be said with regard to the higher culture being influenced by foreigners is that such influence was through the aristocracy. The periods of creative activity which Egypt has experienced since the coming of the Assyrians and Persians did not have origin in the Egyptians proper, but were instituted by foreign aristocracies of whose coming and activities we have ample knowledge.
Alien aristocracies gave to India, Persia, Greece, and Rome their creative periods; and with the passing away of these aristocracies there is an accompanying subsidence of culture. Also, we have before us at present numerous examples of foreigners, or people semi-foreign in race and institutions, imposing their degree of civilization upon less capable races. The electric lights and railways of India; the Suez Canal and Aswan Dam of Egypt; the mines and plantations of Africa; the entire progress, economic, political and social, of the two Americas have their source in a people who are alien in race to the earlier inhabitants of these countries over whom they rule in fact, if not in theory, as an aristocracy.
We have seen that the Egyptians of the creative period were of the white race. It now remains for us to trace in outline their great culture in order to appreciate the heights from which they fell. At the same time, we will keep in mind that the Egyptian civilization decayed. When the Asiatic conquerors (white people; Assyrians and Persians) came, they found a corrupted mass bearing the name Egyptian, ruled by a mulatto Pharaoh.
Drawing, in the main, upon "History of Egypt" (Breasted)* but disclaiming any purpose to identify this authority with any opinion here presented, saw inasmuch as data given by him is inseparable form the conclusions we reach, we now will observe the salient outlines of Egyptian culture.
*(History of Egypt, from the Earliest Times to the Persian Conquest, by James Henry Breasted, Professor of Egyptology and Oriental History in the University of Chicago, Second Edition, 1909. The value of this work is not surpassed by any publication dealing with early Egypt.
Thirty-four hundred years B.C. the kingdoms of Upper and Lower Egypt were consolidated under the rule of Menes, the first Pharaoh. It was the Northern Kingdom, the Delta region, farthest removed form the Negro to the south and in close contact with the other white peoples of North Africa and Asia Minor, that at the time of the consolidation was most advance, "That civilization was probably earlier and more advanced than that of the valley above. Already in the forty-third century B.C., the men of the Delta had discovered the year of three hundred and sixty-days and they introduced a calendar year of this length...it is the civilization of the Delta , therefore, which furnishes us with the earliest fixed date in the history of the world." (Brested, James Henry, History of Egypt, p. 32)
This same Menes, who appears in history as the first Pharaoh, "carried his arms southward against northern Nubia, which then existed below the first cataract as far northward as the nome of Edfu and built a dam above the city of Memphis to divert the waters of the Nile to gain more room for that city. The swamp lands of the Delta were being reclaimed as before the consolidation of the two kingdoms, and the rich lands obtained drew to the Delta a rapidly increasing population." (Ibid., p. 37)
The first Pharaoh is seen to have reigned over a people able to divert the waters of the Nile, reclaim the swamp lands of the Delta, and, important for our consideration, to wage warfare against the Negroid peoples of Nubia. The inhabitants of Nubia were less Negroid at this and earlier periods. Some authorities think that the draining of the Delta swamps led to a rapid movement of the inhabitants northward to that region, leaving behind the more feeble, and that these latter were not able to stem the migration into Nubia of the highly Negroid populations which connected white Egypt with Negro Africa. (G.E. Smith, The Anceint Egyptians)
That portion of Egyptian history covered by the reign of the Pharaohs is divided into thirty dynasties or family reigns. The greater number of these families were related more or less closely by blood ties. Space prevents detailed reference to the material culture of the unknown period of time referred to as the Prediagnostic Age. The first pharaoh, Menes, came into possession of a kingdom far removed form barbaric conditions. We are not to trace a civilization in its rudiments, but one possessing an already well established background of tradition and attainment.
In addition to those attainments implied in the activities already mentioned, the people under the first pharaoh are known to have used not only the hieroglyphic, but a cursive hand as well, and thus to have antedated by more than twenty-five hundred years the use of alphabetic signs by any other people.
The Second Dynasty erected stone temples, Namar, an early king, took 120,000 Libyans captive, and of their herds "one million four hundred and twenty thousand small, and four thousand large cattle." There is evidence that "the kings of this time maintained foreign relations with far remoter people" than the Bedouins of the Sinitic Peninsula, and that they were in commercial relations with the peoples of the northern Mediterranean in the fourth millennium B.C.
Dynasties three to six inclusive (2928-2475 B.C.) form that period known as the Old Kingdom. In religion, government, society, industry, and art, the Old Kingdom is revealed as a well-constituted state, exhibiting rapidly developing culture, physical and spiritual, superior to the culture of the dynasties to follow.
The Egyptians were a religious people, who at this remote date devoutly believed in the resurrection of the body after death and in the immortality of the soul. Osiris was their god of the dead, "king of the glorified." Of a just man they said, "As Osiris lives, so shall he live; as Osiris died not, so shall he also not die; as Osiris perished not, so shall he also not perish." (From the "Pyramid Texts," engraved upon the passages of the Fifth and Sixth Dynasty pyramids, Brested, History of Egypt, pp. 66-67) They believed that a ferryman would row the departed to the land of the glorified, but that this ferryman would receive only those of whom it was said "There is no evil which he has done." This is the "earliest record of an ethical test at the close of life making the life hereafter dependent upon the moral quality of the life lived in this world." It will doubtless surprise the average reader to learn that such exalted religious teachings were held by the Egyptians more than four thousand years ago At a later period their religion became debased, "the animal worship which we usually associate with ancient Egypt, as a cult, is a late product, brought forward in the decline of the nation at the close of its history." (See also, Race or Mongrel, by Alfred Schultz, chap. "Egypt.")
Turning from the high spiritual conceptions of the ancient Egyptians we are struck with no less wonder when we behold their social and material culture. Within the home, the wife was in every respect the equal of the husband, and was treated as such. Filial affection and obedience to parents were enjoined upon all youths, and a favorite tomb inscription was, "I was one beloved of his father, praised of his mother, whom his brothers and sisters loved."
But it is not in their religious or their social attainments that the Early Egyptians were most conspicuous. Their use of metal tools dates back to such early times that some capable authorities assert that the Egyptians initiated the Age of Metals. Let us not fail to appreciate the importance of such a step in the history of man. Prior to the invention of metal implements, the tools used in the industries and the arts were those made from stone, reed and bone. Consider the limitations upon the individual and upon the nation imposed by such possessions. It required infinite patience to fashion these tools and to make advantageous use of them. Industrial progress, of necessity, would be slow. But with the use of metals, industry would take a rapid course upward, and the people in possession of such culture would become strong in war as well as the arts of peace. So Egypt's visible greatness descends to us as the result of the early use of metal tools. "They brought from the first cataract granite blocks twenty or thirty feet long and fifty or sixty tons in weight. The drilled the toughest stone, like diorite, with tubular drills of copper, and the massive lids of the granite sarcophagi were sawn with long copper saws, which, like the drills, were reinforced with sand or emery."
With creative genius awakened, and conscious of their constructive talent, the Egyptians sought yet greater triumphs. Their kings, through a not always generous rivalry, wished to build imperishable monuments to their power, and this desire to live in the eyes of posterity gradually found expression in the pyramid tomb. A succeeding Pharaoh, viewing the tombs of his predecessors and profiting by the increase of wealth and architectural knowledge, would demand a yet greater monument to his glory. The existing generation would subscribe to his aspiration, for the pyramids were recognized as national achievements. So the age of the mighty pyramids was ushered in. These are the most conspicuous evidence of Egyptian greatness; and in the ability of the engineers in planning and overseeing, and the organized power of the Pharaohs in bringing them to perfection, we catch a glimpse of the Caucasian civilizers of Egypt which must forever impress us with the height of their power and make it an absorbing study to discover the causation of their decline.
Zoster, the first Pharaoh of the "Old Kingdom" (2980-2475 B.C.) made his capital at Memphis. It was the Old Kingdom "in which art and mechanics reached a level of unprecedented excellence never later surpassed." With Zoster, as with Menes (3400 B.C.), we have record of the extension of Egyptian influence over the mulatto tribes of Nubia. At the accession of Menes, the Nubian frontier extended northward beyond the nome of Edfu. During the reign of Zoster, Egyptian conquest had quelled the turbulent mongrel tribes of Northern Nubia; and peaceful navigation of the Nile was possible for a distance of seventy-five miles south of the first cataract. From Menes to Zoster intervene more than four hundred years. Within these four centuries the southern frontier had been extended but little. Sesostris III of the Twelfth Dynasty, who came to throne in 1887 B.C., completed the conquest of Nubia. Between Menes and Sesostris III there is a period of fifteen hundred years. This evidence of the slow conquest and absorption of the Negroids to the south of Egypt should not escape our attention. These centuries cover the period of Egypt's greatness. Egypt was still white! During this period, and before it, the Egyptians were in constant contact with the Libyans to their west and with other Caucasian peoples to their north and east. From these they gave and received, and their civilization flourished. Their extension southward was slow, very slow, and to this they owed their long-lived civilization.
Before the time of Zoster, the royal tombs were constructed of sun-dried brick, but this king, desiring a more auspicious and permanent memorial, built a terraced pyramid of stone 195 feet in height. He became the first Pyramid Builder. Later kings of this dynasty erected the great stone pyramids of Dashur and Sneferu, and the last king constructed vessels 170 feet long for traffic on the Nile.
Across the Nile from modern Cairo (ancient Gizeh) the numerous tourists who frequent Egypt will get their first glimpse of the might and power of the civilization that has perished. There, among others, is the Great Pyramid, built by Khufu (Cheops). This is the mighty structure near which is located the Sphinx, the pictorial representations f which have long been familiar to the civilized world. "How strong and effective must have been the organization of Khufu's government we appreciate in some measure when we learn that this pyramid contains some two million three hundred thousand blocks, each weighing on the average two and a half tons...The blocks were taken out of the quarries on the east side of the river south of Cairo, and at high water, when the flats were flooded, they were floated across the valley to the Base of pyramid hill. Here an enormous stone ramp or causeway had been erected, a labor of ten years, if we are to believe Herodotus, and up this incline the stones were dragged to the plateau upon which the pyramid stands. Not merely was this work quantitatively so formidable, but in quality, also, it is the most remarkable material enterprise known to us in this early world, for the most ponderous masonry in the pyramid amazes us by its fineness...The pyramid is, or was, about four hundred and eighty-one feet high, and on its square base measured some seven hundred and fifty-five feet on a side, but the average error is less than ten thousandths of the side in equality, in squareness and in level'...Some of the masonry finish is so fine that blocks weighing tons were set together with seams of considerable length, showing a joint of one ten-thousandth of an inch and involving edges and surfaces equal to opticians' work of the present day, but on a scale of acres rather than feet or yards of material."
From the great pyramids let us turn to other activities which give insight into the wide range of Egyptian culture. The sculpture of the Old Kingdom exhibits the highest technical skill, and compares favorably with the work of modern artists. The temples of the period mark the greatest architectural attainments. Egypt is the source of calumniated architecture. This country, at the close of the fourth millennium B.C., had "solved the fundamental problems of great architecture, developing with the most refined artistic sense and the greatest mechanical skill the treatment of voids." The art of weaving was highly developed, so much so that the fabrics are a source of wonder to the modern beholder, while the goldsmiths were capable of producing the most exquisite ornaments, many of which have survived to the present day.
Toward the close of the Old Kingdom there is evidence of the weakening of the central power, but Egyptian culture did not suffer. Race is more than politics, religion or art. These are but the expression of race.
The rise of the official class to greater influence and the consequent lessening of the Pharaoh's power would not then, of itself, have led to a lessening of cultural activities. Instead, this period was "of significant political development, and in material civilization one of distinct progress. Art and industry flourished as before, and great works of Egyptian sculpture were produced."
The Sixth Dynasty, last of the Old Kingdom, marks a foreign policy of increasing vigor. The Negro tribes of the south were compelled to contribute quotas to the Egyptian armies; and the use of these levies against white neighbors with whom the Egyptians were at war marks an unsavory epoch in the history of the contact of races. The non-creative races, compelled to rely upon their own resources in war or in peace, are insignificant competitors with the white man. But armed with the white man's inventions, they are transformed into formidable competitors, immediately attaining rank which evolutionary forces have not conferred upon them and assuming an influence which they are incapable of maintaining. The Pharaohs' use of multitudes of Negro troops against the enemies of Egypt had much to do with the final decay of Egyptian civilization. This custom continued for centuries. It became so universal that the Egyptian word for soldier is derived from the name of a powerful Negro tribe long accustomed to furnishing levies for the Egyptian word for soldier is derived form the name of a powerful Negro tribe long accustomed to furnishing levies for the Egyptian armies. "We know little of the Negro and Negroid tribes who inhabited the cataract region at this time. Immediately south of the Egyptian frontier dwelt the tribes of Wawat, extending well towards the second cataract, above which the entire region of the upper cataracts was known as Kush...In the upper half of the huge S' formed by the course of the Nile between the junction of the two Niles and the second cataract, was included the territory of the powerful Mazoi, who afterward appeared as auxiliaries in the Egyptian armies in such numbers that the Egyptian word for soldier ultimately became Matoi,' a late (Coptic) form of Mazoi. Probably on the west of the Mazoi was the land of Yam, and between Yam and Mazoi on the south and Wawat on the north, were distributed several tribes, of whim Irthet and Sethut were the most important...They dwelt in squalid settlements of mud huts along the river, or by wells in the valleys running up country from the Nile." (The names and locations of these tribes will be of service in understanding the next chapter)
The Old Kingdom ended with the Sixth Dynasty (2475 B.C.). Space will not permit an attempt to portray the heights of Egyptian culture during that succeeding period known as the Empire. Let us omit, say, a thousand years of history and search for light upon the Egyptian Negro problem. This omission will bring us to approximately 1500 B.C. The Negro policy of the Empire will be found to be not radically different from that of the white nations now ruling Africa. We do not believe that the modern European has taken a leaf out of Egyptian history and modeled his Negro policy accordingly, but there is a striking similarity in method and intent. "Egyptian temples had now sprung up at every large town, and the Egyptian gods were worshiped therein; the Egyptian arts were learned by Nubian craftsmen, and everywhere the rude barbarism of the upper Nile was receiving the stamp of Egyptian culture. Nevertheless, the native chieftains, under the surveillance of the viceroys, were still permitted to retain their titles and honors, and doubles continued to enjoy at least a nominal share in the government...The annual landing of the viceroy of Thebes, bringing the yearly tribute of all the Nubian lands, was now a long established custom."
The gradual diffusion of Caucasian culture and the utilization of native chiefs, under direction of white colonial governors, was characteristic of the first attempt to implant civilization in Negro Africa, as it is of the present effort on the part of modern white nations.
We have seen that the earliest period of Egyptian history reveals a slight Negroid mixture in the populations of southern Egypt. Possibly some five percent of the inhabitants were Negroes or tinged with Negro blood. At the period we now have under consideration (1500 B.C.), there is no way in which it is possible to tell the exact extension of Negro blood, but as Egyptians were constantly going into the South and peoples from the South constantly coming into Egypt proper, it is not likely that more than half the population of the southern half of Egypt was still white. Blood admixture has without exception been the inevitable result of long continued race contact; and, as we know a mulatto inherited the throne a few centuries later, a guess that forty or fifty percent of the ;population was Negroid should be considered conservative. Constant immigration from west and east, armed and peaceful, had augmented the Caucasic element, and this would have tended to prolong the civilization.
Now, if we drop down another long period (800 years), we shall have passed though the age of decay to the point where a mulatto has become the Pharaoh.
From prehistoric time the Negro had sifted into the country. Many thousands came as soldiers for the Pharaohs of old, just as some modern rulers of Europe found it less costly to employ Negro mercenaries than white troops. Countless numbers had come as slaves; many included in the yearly tribute of the southern dependencies, others as captives taken in war; while the large levies for purposes of labor, even if not forcibly retained by Egyptian authorities, would find the Egyptian environment superior to their squalid settlements, and seek to remain.
Certain of the Pharaohs sought to prevent the mongrelization of Egypt by restricting Negro immigration, even to the extent of inflicting the death penalty upon the immigrant. But the Negro was a docile, subservient workman and soldier, and these characteristics created a demand to the influence of which less enlightened Pharaohs succumbed. So they came for centuries; not by force of arms in battle array, but as a subjugated and enslaved people. That the blood of a people who had not produced a civilization should have been instrumental in lowering the status of the Egyptians so that progress ceased, is a lamentable event in world history. Negro blood made the proud Egyptian a mongrel. For three thousand years the same Nile has flowed, the same richly laden soils from its upper reaches annually have inundated the land, but the Negro Egyptian has known no progress. Thirty centuries have demonstrated that the mulatto of the Lower Nile, like the true Negro of its equatorial branches, is below the level of progress. The Caucasian at best progress but slowly; mixed with the Negro he progresses not at all.
The Moslem Arab's conquest of North and East Africa has resulted generally in the mongrelization of the Arab. Thus is added another culture of the Caucasian race engulfed by miscegenation. The comparatively recent interbreeding of the Arab with his African subjects is an event which may serve to illustrate the factor determining the decay of early Egyptian culture.

MORE INFO...

STRs are repeated DNA sequences which are “short repeat units” whose characteristics make them especially suitable for human identification.

These STR values for 17 markers visible in the video are as follows:
DYS 19 – 14 (? not clear)
DYS 385a – 11
DYS 385b – 14
DYS 389i – 13
DYS 389ii – 30
DYS 390 – 24
DYS 391 – 11
DYS 392 – 13
DYS 393 – 13
DYS 437 – 14 (? not clear)
DYS 438 – 12
DYS 439 – 10
DYS 448 – 19
DYS 456 – 15
DYS 458 – 16
DYS 635 – 23
YGATAH4 – 11 What does this mean? Fortunately, a genius by the name of Whit Athey provides the key to this list. Mr Athey is a retired physicist whose working career was primarily at the Food and Drug Administration where he was chief of one of the medical device labs.

Mr Athey received his doctorate in physics and biochemistry at Tufts University, and undergraduate (engineering) and masters (math) degrees at Auburn University. For several years during the 1980s, he also taught one course each semester in the electrical engineering department of the University of Maryland. Besides his interest in genetic genealogy, he is an amateur astronomer and has his own small observatory near his home in Brookeville, MD.

He also runs a very valuable website called the “Haplogroup Predictor” which allows users to input STR data and generate the haplogroup which marks those STR data.

For those who want to know what a haplogroup is, here is a “simple” definition: a haplogroup is a group of similar haplotypes that share a common ancestor with a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutation.

Still none the wiser? Damn these scientists.

Ok, let’s try it this way: a haplotype is a combination of multiple specific locations of a gene or DNA sequence on a chromosome.

Haplogroups are assigned letters of the alphabet, and refinements consist of additional number and letter combinations, for example R1b or R1b1. Y-chromosome and mitochondrial DNA haplogroups have different haplogroup designations. In essence, haplogroups give an inisight into ancestral origins dating back thousands of years.

By entering all the STR data inadvertently shown on the Discovery video, a 99.6 percent fit with the R1b haplogroup is revealed.

The significance is, of course, that R1b is the most common Y-chromosome haplogroup in Europe reaching its highest concentrations in Ireland, Scotland, western England and the European Atlantic seaboard — in other words, European through and through.

So much for the Afro-centrists and others who have derided the very obvious northwestern European appearance of a large number of the pharonic mummies. It seems like March of the Titans was right after all
http://dgmweb.net/DNA/Graphics/800px-R1b-DNA-Distribution.jpe

"The population of North Africa in ancient times consisted predominantly of Berbers in the West and Egyptians in the East.

The Semitic Phoenicians and Jews, the Iranian Alans, and the European Greeks, Romans and Vandals settled in North Africa as well.

Berber speaking populations constitute significant communities within Morocco and Algeria and are also still present in smaller numbers in Tunisia and Libya.

The Tuareg and other often-nomadic peoples are the principal inhabitants of the Saharan interior of North Africa.

The Nubians, who developed an ancient civilization in Northeast Africa (Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia), are among the predominately Nilo-Saharan-speaking groups found in Sudan, in addition to the Fur, Zaghawa and Nuba, among others."

Did you know that the IRISH were the FIRST SLAVES IN THE AMERICAS?? READ AND SHARE!

The Irish Slave Trade – The Forgotten “White” Slaves

The Slaves That the Progressives and Race baiters conveniently forget.

They came as slaves; vast human cargo transported on tall British ships bound for the Americas. They were shipped by the hundreds of thousands and included men, women, and even the youngest of children. 

Whenever they rebelled or even disobeyed an order, they were punished in the harshest ways. Slave owners would hang their human property by their hands and set their hands or feet on fire as one form of punishment. They were burned alive and had their heads placed on pikes in the marketplace as a warning to other captives.

We don’t really need to go through all of the gory details, do we? We know all too well the atrocities of the African slave trade.

But, are we talking about African slavery? King James II and Charles I also led a continued effort to enslave the Irish. Britain’s famed Oliver Cromwell furthered this practice of dehumanizing one’s next door neighbor.

The Irish slave trade began when James II sold 30,000 Irish prisoners as slaves to the New World. His Proclamation of 1625 required Irish political prisoners be sent overseas and sold to English settlers in the West Indies. By the mid 1600s, the Irish were the main slaves sold to Antigua and Montserrat. At that time, 70% of the total population of Montserrat were Irish slaves.

Ireland quickly became the biggest source of human livestock for English merchants. The majority of the early slaves to the New World were actually white.
From 1641 to 1652, over 500,000 Irish were killed by the English and another 300,000 were sold as slaves. Ireland’s population fell from about 1,500,000 to 600,000 in one single decade. Families were ripped apart as the British did not allow Irish dads to take their wives and children with them across the Atlantic. This led to a helpless population of homeless women and children. Britain’s solution was to auction them off as well.

During the 1650s, over 100,000 Irish children between the ages of 10 and 14 were taken from their parents and sold as slaves in the West Indies, Virginia and New England. In this decade, 52,000 Irish (mostly women and children) were sold to Barbados and Virginia. Another 30,000 Irish men and women were also transported and sold to the highest bidder. In 1656, Cromwell ordered that 2000 Irish children be taken to Jamaica and sold as slaves to English settlers.

Many people today will avoid calling the Irish slaves what they truly were: Slaves. They’ll come up with terms like “Indentured Servants” to describe what occurred to the Irish. However, in most cases from the 17th and 18th centuries, Irish slaves were nothing more than human cattle.
As an example, the African slave trade was just beginning during this same period. It is well recorded that African slaves, not tainted with the stain of the hated Catholic theology and more expensive to purchase, were often treated far better than their Irish counterparts.

African slaves were very expensive during the late 1600s (50 Sterling). Irish slaves came cheap (no more than 5 Sterling). If a planter whipped or branded or beat an Irish slave to death, it was never a crime. A death was a monetary setback, but far cheaper than killing a more expensive African. The English masters quickly began breeding the Irish women for both their own personal pleasure and for greater profit. Children of slaves were themselves slaves, which increased the size of the master’s free workforce. Even if an Irish woman somehow obtained her freedom, her kids would remain slaves of her master. Thus, Irish moms, even with this new found emancipation, would seldom abandon their kids and would remain in servitude.

In time, the English thought of a better way to use these women (in many cases, girls as young as 12) to increase their market share: The settlers began to breed Irish women and girls with African men to produce slaves with a distinct complexion. These new “mulatto” slaves brought a higher price than Irish livestock and, likewise, enabled the settlers to save money rather than purchase new African slaves. This practice of interbreeding Irish females with African men went on for several decades and was so widespread that, in 1681, legislation was passed “forbidding the practice of mating Irish slave women to African slave men for the purpose of producing slaves for sale.” In short, it was stopped only because it interfered with the profits of a large slave transport company.

England continued to ship tens of thousands of Irish slaves for more than a century. Records state that, after the 1798 Irish Rebellion, thousands of Irish slaves were sold to both America and Australia. There were horrible abuses of both African and Irish captives. One British ship even dumped 1,302 slaves into the Atlantic Ocean so that the crew would have plenty of food to eat.
There is little question that the Irish experienced the horrors of slavery as much (if not more in the 17th Century) as the Africans did. There is, also, very little question that those brown, tanned faces you witness in your travels to the West Indies are very likely a combination of African and Irish ancestry. In 1839, Britain finally decided on it’s own to end it’s participation in Satan’s highway to hell and stopped transporting slaves. While their decision did not stop pirates from doing what they desired, the new law slowly concluded THIS chapter of nightmarish Irish misery.

But, if anyone, black or white, believes that slavery was only an African experience, then they’ve got it completely wrong.

Irish slavery is a subject worth remembering, not erasing from our memories.
But, where are our public (and PRIVATE) schools???? Where are the history books? Why is it so seldom discussed?

Do the memories of hundreds of thousands of Irish victims merit more than a mention from an unknown writer?

Or is their story to be one that their English pirates intended: To (unlike the African book) have the Irish story utterly and completely disappear as if it never happened.

None of the Irish victims ever made it back to their homeland to describe their ordeal. These are the lost slaves; the ones that time and biased history books conveniently forgot.

SO THE NEXT TIME SOME PROGRESSIVE CHARLATAN TELLS YOU ABOUT BLACK SLAVERY.... TELL THEM SOMETHING THEY PROBABLY DO NOT KNOW ANYTHING ABOUT!!

..and for those who will say that the Irish were "just Indentured Servants..."

Slaves or Indentured Servants
There has been a lot of whitewashing of the Irish slave trade, partly by not mentioning it, and partly by labeling slaves as indentured servants. There were indeed indentureds, including English, French, Spanish and even a few Irish. But there is a great difference between the two. Indentures bind two or more parties in mutual obligations. Servant indentures were agreements between an individual and a shipper in which the individual agreed to sell his services for a period of time in exchange for passage, and during his service, he would receive proper housing, food, clothing, and usually a piece of land at the end of the term of service. It is believed that some of the Irish that went to the Amazon settlement after the Battle of Kinsale and up to 1612 were exiled military who went voluntarily, probably as indentureds to Spanish or Portuguese shippers.
However, from 1625 onward the Irish were sold, pure and simple as slaves. There were no indenture agreements, no protection, no choice. They were captured and originally turned over to shippers to be sold for their profit. Because the profits were so great, generally 900 pounds of cotton for a slave, the Irish slave trade became an industry in which everyone involved (except the Irish) had a share of the profits.

Treatment
Although the Africans and Irish were housed together and were the property of the planter owners, the Africans received much better treatment, food and housing. In the British West Indies the planters routinely tortured white slaves for any infraction. Owners would hang Irish slaves by their hands and set their hands or feet afire as a means of punishment. To end this barbarity, Colonel William Brayne wrote to English authorities in 1656 urging the importation of Negro slaves on the grounds that, "as the planters would have to pay much more for them, they would have an interest in preserving their lives, which was wanting in the case of (Irish)...." many of whom, he charged, were killed by overwork and cruel treatment. African Negroes cost generally about 20 to 50 pounds Sterling, compared to 900 pounds of cotton (about 5 pounds Sterling) for an Irish. They were also more durable in the hot climate, and caused fewer problems. The biggest bonus with the Africans though, was they were NOT Catholic, and any heathen pagan was better than an Irish Papist. Irish prisoners were commonly sentenced to a term of service, so theoretically they would eventually be free. In practice, many of the slavers sold the Irish on the same terms as prisoners for servitude of 7 to 10 years.